Internal Research

The intersection of gender and technology highlights workplace inequities. The under-representation of women in the education, jobs, and sectors that produce technology influences technology design and function. 

[1] Global Health 5050 (2020), COVID-19 sex-disaggregated data tracker, viewed 1 May 2020, available: http://globalhealth5050.org/covid19/.

[2] Australian Government Department of Health (2020), COVID-19 cases in Australia by gender and age, viewed 18 April 2020, available: https://www.health.gov.au/resources/publications/covid-19-cases-in-australia-by-gender-and-age.

[3] United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) (2020), COVID-19: A Gender Lens: protecting sexual and reproductive health and rights, and promoting gender equality, viewed 19 April 2020, available: https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/resource-pdf/covid-19_a_gender_lens_guidance_note.pdf.

[4] Boniol, M, McIsaac, M, Xu, L, Wuliji, T, Diallo, K & Campbell, J (2019), Gender equity in the health workforce: Analysis of 104 countries, World Health Organisation, viewed 23 March 2020, available: https://www.who.int/hrh/resources/gender_equity-health_workforce_analysis/en/.

[5] United Nations (UN) (2020), Policy brief: The impact of COVID-19 on women, viewed 16 April 2020, available: https://www.un.org/sites/un2.un.org/files/policy_brief_on_covid_impact_on_women_9_apr_2020_updated.pdf

[6] Calculated using Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) (2020a), 6291.0.55.003 - Labour Force, Australia, Detailed, Quarterly, Feb 2020, EQ08 - Employed persons by Occupation unit group of main job (ANZSCO), Sex, State and Territory, August 1986 onwards (Pivot Table), viewed 21 April 2020, available: https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/6291.0.55.003

[7] Calculated using ABS (2020a).

[8] Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (2020), Women at the core of the fight against COVID-19 crisis, viewed 18 April 2020, available https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/view/?ref=127_127000-awfnqj80me&title=Women-at-the-core-of-the-fight-against-COVID-19-crisis.

[9] OECD (2020).

[10] Women in Global Health (2020), Operation 50/50: women’s perspectives save lives, viewed 21 April 2020, available: https://www.womeningh.org/operation-50-50.

[11] UN Women (2020a), COVID-19: Emerging gender data and why it matters, viewed 17 April 2020, available: https://data.unwomen.org/resources/covid-19-emerging-gender-data-and-why-it-matters.

[12] Amin, M (2020), NSW healthcare workers struggling to keep families safe from coronavirus, ABC News, viewed 8 April 2020, available: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-04-02/nsw-healthcare-workers-leaving-families-in-coronavirus-crisis/12111218.

[13] Evans, D (2020), How Will COVID-19 Affect Women and Girls in Low- and Middle-Income Countries? Centre for Global Development, viewed 18 April 2020, available: https://www.cgdev.org/blog/how-will-covid-19-affect-women-and-girls-low-and-middle-income-countries; UNFPA (2020).

[14] UN (2020).

[15] Davies, SE, Harman, S, True, J & Wenham, C (2020), Why gender matters in the impact and recovery from Covid-19, The Interpreter, Lowy Institute, viewed 20 March 2020, available: https://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/why-gender-matters-impact-and-recovery-covid-19.

[16] International Labour Organisation (ILO) (2018), Care work and care jobs: For the future of decent work, viewed 23 March 2020, available: https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/---publ/documents/publication/wcms_633135.pdf.

[17] Workplace Gender Equality Agency (WGEA) (2016), Unpaid care work and the labour market, viewed 19 April 2020, available: https://www.wgea.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/australian-unpaid-care-work-and-the-labour-market.pdf.

[18] Alon, TM, Doepke, M, Olmstead-Rumsey, J & Tertilt, M (2020), The impact of COVID-19 on gender equality, Working Paper 26947, National Bureau of Economic Research, viewed 18 April 2020, available: https://www.nber.org/papers/w26947.pdf.

[19] Harvard Business Review Women at Work Podcast (2020), We’re beyond stretched, viewed 18 April 2020, available: https://hbr.org/podcast/2020/04/were-beyond-stretched.

[20] Newgate Australia (2020), Australians focused on economic impacts of COVID-19 – Newgate survey, viewed 18 April 2020, available: https://www.newgatecomms.com.au/australians-focused-on-economic-impacts-of-covid-19-newgate-survey/; Newgate Australia (2020), Australia’s response to covid-19 has reached a rare consensus, as community wants to stay the course on virus fight, viewed 18 April 2020, available: https://www.newgatecomms.com.au/australias-response-to-covid-19-has-reached-a-rare-consensus-as-community-wants-to-stay-the-course-on-virus-fight/.

[21] Chung, H (2020), Return of the 1950s housewife? How to stop coronavirus lockdown reinforcing sexist gender roles, The Conversation, viewed 8 April 2020, available: https://theconversation.com/return-of-the-1950s-housewife-how-to-stop-coronavirus-lockdown-reinforcing-sexist-gender-roles-134851.

[22] Wenham, C, Smith, J & Morgan, R (2020), COVID-19: the gendered impacts of the outbreak, The Lancet, vol 395, issue 10227, pp.846-848.

[23] Hutt, R (2020), The coronavirus fallout may be worse for women than men. Here's why, World Economic Forum, viewed 20 March 2020, available: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/03/the-coronavirus-fallout-may-be-worse-for-women-than-men-heres-why/.

[24] UN Women (2020), Paying attention to women’s needs and leadership will strengthen COVID-19 response, viewed 23 March 2020, available: https://www.unwomen.org/en/news/stories/2020/3/news-womens-needs-and-leadership-in-covid-19-response.

[25] Alon et al. (2020).

[26] Alon et al. (2020).

[27] WGEA (2018), Executive briefing on workplace flexibility, viewed 19 April 2020, available: https://www.wgea.gov.au/topics/workplace-flexibility/executive-briefing-on-workplace-flexibility.

[28] Alon et al. (2020).

[29] Mansfield, A (2020), Daddy daycare: new-look flexible work options, thanks to pandemic, University of South Australia, viewed 19 April 2020, available: https://www.unisa.edu.au/Media-Centre/Releases/2020/daddy-day-care-new-look-flexible-work-options-thanks-to-pandemic/.

[30] Russell, G & O’Leary, J (2012), Men get flexible! Mainstreaming flexible work in Australian business, Diversity Council Australia, viewed 28 February 2020, available: https://www.dca.org.au/research/project/men-get-flexible.

[31] Sanders, M, Zenga, J Hellicar, M & Fagg K (2016), The power of flexibility: A key enabler to boost gender parity and employee engagement, Bain & Co, viewed 20 February 2020, available: https://www.bain.com/insights/the-power-of-flexibility/.

[32] Alon et al. (2020).

[33] Alon et al. (2020).

[34] Alon et al. (2020).

[35] Alon et al. (2020); WGEA (2019), Designing and supporting gender equitable parental leave, viewed 19 April 2020, available: https://www.wgea.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/Insight_paper_designing_and_supporting_gender_equitable_parental_leave.pdf.

[36] Alon et al. (2020).

[37] See Bennet, J (2020), ‘I Feel Like I Have Five Jobs’: Moms Navigate the Pandemic, The New York Times, viewed 23 March 2020, available: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/20/parenting/childcare-coronavirus-moms.html; Emery, K (2020), Coronavirus crisis: Shift to working from home brings opportunity for dads to step out of office, back into kids’ lives, The West Australian, viewed 18 April 2020, available: https://thewest.com.au/news/coronavirus/coronavirus-crisis-shift-to-working-from-home-brings-opportunity-for-dads-to-step-out-of-office-back-into-kids-lives-ng-b881515000z?utm_source=csp&utm_medium=portal&utm_campaign=links.streem.com.au; Strengers, Y (2020), Coronavirus has sparked a work from home revolution, but is it a backward step for gender equality?, ABC News, viewed 18 April 2020, available: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-04-06/yolande-stengers-gender-and-corona/12109010.

[38] Haussegger, V (2020), Gender pay gap poses 'shocking' pitfall if isolation goes on, The Canberra Times, viewed 18 April 2020, https://www.canberratimes.com.au/story/6721006/gender-pay-gap-poses-shocking-pitfall-if-isolation-goes-on/.

[39] Jagannathan, M (2020), A grim reminder that these women get paid less than men — even on the front lines of coronavirus, Market Watch, viewed 18 April 2020, available: https://www.marketwatch.com/story/even-on-the-front-lines-of-coronavirus-some-women-get-paid-less-than-men-2020-03-31; Reuters (2020), Will coronavirus make the gender pay gap worse? Today, viewed 18 April 2020, available: https://www.todayonline.com/world/will-coronavirus-make-gender-pay-gap-worse; Torrey, S (2020), Women are disproportionately impacted by the economic fallout of COVID-19, Fast Company, viewed 18 April 2020, available: https://www.fastcompany.com/90488089/women-are-disproportionately-impacted-by-covid-19.

[40] Dawson, E (2020), The key stats that show the gendered impact of the pandemic response, Women’s Agenda, viewed: 18 April 2020, available: https://womensagenda.com.au/latest/the-key-stats-that-show-the-gendered-impact-of-the-pandemic-response/.

[41] OECD (2020).

[42] UN (2020).

[43] Calculated using the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Full-Time Adult Average Weekly Ordinary Time Earnings Trend series from the Australian Weekly Earnings survey. See ABS (2020b), Average Weekly Earnings, Australia, November 2019, cat. no. 6302.0, viewed 20 February 2020, http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/6302.0.

[44] WGEA (2020), Women’s economic security in retirement, viewed 21 April 2020, available: https://www.wgea.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/Women%27s_economic_security_in_retirement.pdf.

[45] OECD (2020).

[46] OECD (2020).

[47] UN (2020).

[48] Wenham et al. (2020).

[49] National Domestic Workers Alliance (2020), Coronavirus’ Economic Impact on Domestic Workers, viewed 18 April 2020, available:  https://domesticworkers.org/sites/default/files/Coronavirus_Report_4_8_20.pdf.

[50] Dados, N & Taksa, L (2020), Pandemic’s economic blow hits women hard, Macquarie University The Lighthouse, viewed 18 April 2020, available: https://lighthouse.mq.edu.au/article/april-2020/Pandemics-economic-blow-hits-women-hard.

[51] Cassells, R, Duncan, A, Dockery, M, Kiely, D & Mavisakalyan, A (2020), Potential job losses in the COVID-19 pandemic, Bankwest Curtin Economic Centre Research Brief COVID-19 #2, viewed 19 April 2020, available: https://bcec.edu.au/assets/2020/03/BCEC-COVID19-Brief-2_Potential-Job-losses_FINAL-2.pdf.

[52] Australian Taxation Office (ATO) (2020), JobKeeper Payment, viewed 21 April 2020, available: https://www.ato.gov.au/General/JobKeeper-Payment/.

[53] Cassells, R & Duncan, A (2020), JobKeepers and JobSeekers: How many workers will lose and how many will gain?, viewed 21 April 2020, available: Payment https://bcec.edu.au/assets/2020/03/BCEC-COVID19-Brief-3-Job-Seekers-and-Keepers_FINAL-1.pdf.

[54] Australian Childcare Alliance (ACA) (2020), ACA implores government to step up now to prevent imminent collapse of child care (early learning) sector, Media Release, viewed 21 April 2020, available: https://childcarealliance.org.au/media-publications/aca-media-releases/134-aca-media-release-aca-implores-government-to-save-the-early-learning-sector-27-03-2019/file; ACA (2020), ACA applauds the Australian Government for responding to early learning sector crisis, Media release, viewed 21 April 2020, available: https://childcarealliance.org.au/media-publications/aca-media-releases/136-aca-media-release-aca-applauds-government-for-lifeline-to-families-and-early-learning-sector-02-04-2020/file; Parliament of Australia (2020), COVID-19 economic response – free child care, viewed 1 May 2020, available: https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/FlagPost/2020/April/Coronavirus_response-Free_child_care.

[55] Calculated using ABS (2020a).

[56] ABS (2020c), 6160.0.55.001 - Weekly Payroll Jobs and Wages in Australia, Week ending 18 April 2020, viewed 7 May 2020, available: https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/6160.0.55.001Main%20Features1Week%20ending%2018%20April%202020?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=6160.0.55.001&issue=Week%20ending%2018%20April%202020&num=&view=.

[57] ABS (2020c).

[58] ABS (2020c).

[59] Institute for Women’s Policy Research (2020), Women lost more jobs than men in almost all sectors of the economy, Quick Figures #Q080, viewed 19 April, available https://iwpr.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/QF-Jobs-Day-April-FINAL.pdf.

[60] OECD (2020)

[61] Mlambo-Ngcuka, P (2020), COVID-19: women front and centre, UN Women, viewed 23 March 2020, available: https://www.unwomen.org/en/news/stories/2020/3/statement-ed-phumzile-covid-19-women-front-and-centre.

[62] Barrientos, S & Pallangyo, C (2018), Global Value Chain Policy Series Gender, World Economic Forum, viewed 23 March 2020, available: http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_51129_WP_Global_Value_Chain_Policy_Series_Gender_report_2018.pdf.

[63] Mlambo-Ngcuka (2020).

[64] UN Women (2020c), COVID-19 and ending violence against women and girls, viewed 17 April 2020, available: www.unwomen.org/-/media/headquarters/attachments/sections/library/publications/2020/issue-brief-covid-19-and-ending-violence-against-women-and-girls-en.pdf?la=en&vs=5006.

[65] UN Women (2020c).

[66] Women’s Safety NSW (2020), New domestic violence survey in NSW shows impact of COVID-19 on the rise, viewed 8 April 2020, available: https://www.womenssafetynsw.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/03.04.20_New-Domestic-Violence-Survey-in-NSW-Shows-Impact-of-COVID-19-on-the-Rise.pdf.

[67] Doran, M (2020), Domestic violence services prepare for demand as coronavirus restrictions begin to ease, viewed 1 May 2020, available: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-05-01/domestic-violence-brace-for-demand-coronavirus-restrictions/12203178.

[68] UN Women (2020c).

[69] Doran (2020).

[70] Davies et al. (2020).

[71] UN Women (2020c).

[72] Peterman, A, Potts, A, O’Donnell, M, Thompson, K, Shah, N, Pertelt-Prigione, S, & van Gelder, N (2020), Pandemics and violence against women and children, Centre for Global Devlopment Working Paper 528, viewed 18 April 2020, available: https://www.cgdev.org/sites/default/files/pandemics-and-vawg-april2.pdf.

[73] OECD (2020); Özbay, N (2020), The gendered impact of COVID-19, Apolitical, viewed 18 April 2020, available: https://apolitical.co/en/solution_article/the-gendered-impact-of-covid-19; Smith, J (2020), Gender and the coronavirus outbreak, Think Global Health, viewed, 18 April 2020, available: https://www.thinkglobalhealth.org/article/gender-and-coronavirus-outbreak; UN Women (2020a).

[74] OECD (2020); Özbay, N (2020).

[75] Özbay, N (2020).

[76] Özbay, N (2020).

[77] OECD (2020).

[78] O’Donnell, M (2020), Playing the long game: How a gender lens can mitigate harm caused by pandemics, Centre for Global Development, viewed 18 April 2020, available: https://www.cgdev.org/blog/playing-long-game-how-gender-lens-can-mitigate-harm-caused-pandemics.

[79] OECD (2020).

[80] O’Donnell, M (2020); UNFPA (2020).  

[81] O’Donnell, M (2020).

[82] OECD (2020).

[83] United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), ILO & UN Women (2020), Family friendly policies and other good workplace practices in the context of COVID-19: Key steps employers can take, viewed 18 April 2020, available: https://www.unwomen.org/-/media/headquarters/attachments/sections/library/publications/2020/family-friendly-policies-and-other-good-workplace-practices-in-the-context-of-covid-19-en.pdf?la=en&vs=4828.

[84] O’Donnell, M (2020).

Monthly updates

[i] Australian Bureau of Statistics (2020), 6202.0 - Labour Force, Australia, Apr 2020, viewed 25 May 2020, available: https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/6202.0Main%20Features1Apr%202020?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=6202.0&issue=Apr%202020&num=&view=.

[ii] Rapid Research Information Forum (2020), The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on women in the STEM workforce, viewed 28 May 2020, available: https://www.science.org.au/sites/default/files/rrif-covid19-women-stem-workforce.pdf.

[iii] ABS (2020), 4940.0 - Household Impacts of COVID-19 Survey, 12-15 May 2020, viewed 1 June 2020, available: https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/4940.0Main%20Features112-15%20May%202020?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=4940.0&issue=12-15%20May%202020&num=&view=.

Health crises can exacerbate existing gender inequalities. As the global health pandemic caused by COVID-19 is ongoing, the impacts and effects are still being assessed and understood. However, preliminary research and emerging data show that women are likely to be affected in particular ways by this global pandemic.

Women face greater risk of economic insecurity in retirement than men. To be economically secure in retirement means to be financially secure through a steady income and/or other resources to support a decent standard of living in the foreseeable future.

Gender bias is pervasive at work and in organisations, creating inequalities at every stage of the employment cycle. This insight paper highlights some of the research examining how gender bias operates at work and provides evidence-based suggestions for creating more equitable recruitment and promotion systems.

The Business Council of Australia, McKinsey & Company and the Workplace Gender Equality Agency teamed up to undertake a study using three years of WGEA data and more than 40 interviews. The result, Women in Leadership: Lessons from Australian companies leading the way, provides an evidence-based recipe for dismantling barriers to women’s participation at senior levels and a correlation between representation of women in senior roles and the practice of normalising flexible work.

This paper gives an overview of countries that have gender equality reporting schemes as well as information about a number of different models that are currently in use throughout the world.

KPMG has developed this report, She’s Price(d)less: The economics of the gender pay gap, for Diversity Council Australia and the Workplace Gender Equality Agency. The report uses structured econometric modelling to determine the factors that underpin the gap, and to what extent they contribute to the issue.

This paper explores the differences between mentoring and sponsorship for women in the workforce and outlines the benefits and the drawbacks for both.

This paper explores the link between the unequal distribution of caring work between women and men and the unequal labour market outcomes.